تأثیر فعالیت ریشه زعفران و سطوح کود حیوانی بر فراهمی عناصر غذایی در خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات و علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

فراهمی عناصر غذایی در محیط ریشه گیاه و بهبود وضعیت فیزیکی خاک با استفاده صحیح و مقدار کافی از کود حیوانی می­تواند موجب بهبود عملکرد زعفران شود. این مطالعه در نهالستان دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در گلدان‌های 25 کیلویی خاک در سال 1394- 1393 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل شاهد (عدم کاربرد کود)، 40 و 80 تن در هکتار، کاربرد تلفیقی 40 تن کود دامی در هکتار + 100 درصد کود شیمیایی و 80 تن کود دامی در هکتار + 100 درصد کود شیمیایی (بر اساس آزمون خاک)، کاربرد فقط کود شیمیایی و اعمال تیمارها درخاک با شرایط مشابه بدون کشت گیاه زعفران بود. نمونه­برداری خاک در سال دوم پس از گلدهی و اندازه­گیری عناصر انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر ساده کودهای دامی و شیمیایی برمیزان فسفر و پتاسیم قابل جذب خاک تحت کشت زعفران معنی­دار بود و بیشترین میزان فسفر و پتاسیم قابل جذب (به ترتیب، 62/9 و 13/763 میلی­گرم درکیلوگرم خاک) ازمصرف 80 تن کود دامی درهکتاربدست آمد. همچنین نتایج نشان­دهنده تأثیرمعنی­دار اثر متقابل کودهای شیمیایی و دامی بر غلظت آهن قابل جذب درخاک تحت کشت زعفران بود. افزایش غلظت فسفر و پتاسیم و کاهش غلظت آهن در خاک تحت کشت زعفران بیانگر فعالیت ریشه گیاه زعفران می‌باشد که می‌تواند نقش مؤثری در فراهمی عناصر غذایی داشته باشد.

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