اثرات محلول‌پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک و نیترات پتاسیم بر محتوای کلروفیل، نشت الکترولیت و رشد بنه‌های دختری زعفران در شرایط بیرجند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل دانشگاه بیرجند

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 گروه پژوهشی زعفران دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به منظور بررسی نقش محلول‌پاشی هورمون اسید سالیسیلیک و نیترات پتاسیم بر گیاه زعفران، آزمایشی دو ساله (94-1393 و 94-1395) در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی سرایان (دانشگاه بیرجند) به اجرا در آمد. در این آزمایش، غلظت‌های مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک (5/0، 1 و 2 میلی‌مولار بر لیتر) و نیترات پتاسیم (250، 500 و 1000 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر) به همراه تیمار شاهد (آب مقطر) در دو زمان بر روی گیاه زعفران محلول‌پاشی گردید. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش، بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a و نسبت کلروفیل a/b در تیمار 1000 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر نیترات پتاسیم به ترتیب به مقدار 935/6 و 64/123 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن‌تر حاصل شد که با سطح 2 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک از نظر آماری اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت. بیشترین میزان کلروفیل b در تیمار 5/0 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک به مقدار 0849/1 میلی گرم بر گرم مشاهده شد که با تیمار 1 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک اختلاف معنی‌داری نشان نداد. مصرف تمامی سطوح اسید سالیسیلیک و نیترات پتاسیم مقدار نشت الکترولیت‌ها را به‌طور نسبی کاهش داد. افزون بر این، بالاترین مقدار وزن‌تر پداژه دختری (90/3 گرم)، تعداد برگ (8 عدد در هر بوته) و طول برگ (81/33 سانتی‌متر) در سطح 2 میلی‌مولار اسید سالیسیلیک، به دست آمد. در مجموع به نظر می‌رسد اسید سالیسیلیک و نیترات پتاسیم با تأثیر بر فرآیندهای فیزیولوژیک گیاه، سبب کاهش اثرات منفی تنش‌ سرما بواسطة کاهش میزان نشت الکترولیت‌ها و نیز افزایش رشد بنه‌های دختری و توسعة اندام فتوسنتز کنندة گیاه دارویی زعفران می‌شوند.

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