بررسی اثرات زیست محیطی نظام‌های تولید زعفران با استفاده از روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان‌های تربت حیدریه و قائن)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استادیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف مقایسه اثرات زیست محیطی نظام­های تولید زعفران طی سال­های اول تا هفتم در شهرستان­های تربت حیدریه و قائن به عنوان دو قطب مهم تولید این محصول، در سطوح مختلف مصرف نهاده­ها و کود دامی (کمتر از 100، 150-100 و بیش از 150 تن در هکتار) در سال 1394 با استفاده از روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) انجام شد. بر اساس روش ISO14044، LCA در چهار گام تعریف اهداف و حوزه عمل مطالعه، ممیزی چرخه حیات، ارزیابی تأثیر چرخه حیات (شامل گرمایش جهانی، غنی­سازی در محیط­های خشکی و آبی و اسیدی شدن) و تلفیق و تفسیر نتایج محاسبه شد. واحد کارکردی معادل یک تن گل در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان مصرف نهاده­ها شامل سوخت و کودهای دامی و شیمیایی در تربت حیدریه بالاتر از قائن بود. همچنین بالاترین عملکرد گل در شهرستان­های قائن و تربت حیدریه (به ترتیب با 47/1 و 66/1 تن در هکتار) در پایین­ترین سطح مصرف کود دامی حاصل گردید. بالاترین پتانسیل غنی­سازی در محیط آبی در شهرستان­های قائن و تربت حیدریه برای بیشترین میزان مصرف کود دامی به ترتیب برابر با 861/4 و 983/10 واحد معادل کیلوگرم PO4 به ازای یک تن گل مشاهده گردید. بالاترین مجموع شاخص بوم­شناخت در شهرستان‌های قائن و تربت حیدریه برای بالاترین سطح کودی برابر با 34/1 و 18/3 EcoX به ازای یک تن گل محاسبه گردید. با توجه به سهم بالای اثرات زیست محیطی در نظام­های تولید زعفران به ویژه در تربت حیدریه توصیه می­شود از کشت مخلوط، کم­خاکورزی و مصرف مقادیر مناسب کودهای آلی بهره­گیری گردد.

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