اثر سری های کشت مخلوط افزایشی زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) با زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد.

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد.

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه تأثیر نسبت‌های کشت مخلوط افزایشی زیره سبز(Cuminum cyminum L.) با زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد هر دو گونه، آزمایشی در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در دو سال زراعی 93-1392 و 94-1393 اجرا شد. نسبت‌های کشت مخلوط افزایشی شامل 100% زعفران+20% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز، 100% زعفران+40% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز، 100% زعفران+60% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز، 100% زعفران+80% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز، 100% زعفران+100% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز و کشت خالص هر دو گیاه به عنوان تیمار مدنظر قرار گرفتند. زعفران و زیره سبز به ترتیب بر اساس تراکم مطلوب 50 بنه در متر مربع و 120 بوته در متر مربع کاشته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر نسبت­های کشت مخلوط افزایشی زیره­سبز بر تعداد گل، وزن تر گل و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران معنی­دار  (01/0p≤) بود. بیشترین وزن تر گل و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران برای کشت خالص زعفران به ترتیب با 87/291 و 77/2 گرم بر متر مربع بدست آمد. بالاترین مقادیر این صفات در مقایسه بین نسبت­های کشت مخلوط افزایشی با زیره­سبز برای نسبت 100% زعفران+60% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز به ترتیب برابر با 34/214 و 98/1 گرم بر متر مربع حاصل شد. اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد بیولوژیکی، دانه و اسانس زیره سبز به طور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر نسبت­های کشت مخلوط با زعفران قرار گرفت (01/0p≤). بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی و دانه برای کشت خالص به ترتیب برابر با 08/243 و 87/120 گرم بر متر مربع بدست آمد. بالاترین مقادیر این صفات در مقایسه بین الگوهای کشت مخلوط برای نسبت 100% زعفران+100% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز به ترتیب با 15/171 و 90/84 گرم بر متر مربع بدست آمد. با افزایش درصد حضور زیره سبز از 20 به 100 درصد در کشت مخلوط با زعفران، عملکرد اسانس به ترتیب 77، 61، 39 و 19 درصد افزایش یافت. دامنه نسبت برابری زمین زعفران و زیره سبز به ترتیب بین 1-28/0 و 1-16/0 محاسبه گردید. بالاترین مجموع نسبت برابری زمین برای نسبت 100% زعفران+60% تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز با 12/1 بدست آمد. بدین ترتیب، بر اساس نتایج توصیه می­شود که کشت مخلوط زعفران با گیاهان دارویی نظیر زیره سبز به منظور بهبود عملکرد این گونه ارزشمند مد نظر قرار گیرد.

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