اثر غلظت‌ تنظیم‌کننده‌های مختلف رشد بر دوره خواب پیاز و عملکرد گل زعفران در شرایط هیدروپونیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زیست فناوری مواد غذایی، مؤسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد اصلاح نباتات زراعی

چکیده

زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) گیاهی علفی و چندساله بدون ساقه از خانواده Iridaceae است. این گیاه تریپلوئید و عقیم با پیاز تکثیر می‌شود. سطوح هورمون‌ها و تنظیم‌کننده‌های رشد گیاهی تأثیر بسزایی در کنترل دوره خواب، جوانه‌زنی و سبز شدن ایفا می‌نماید. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثر انواع و غلظت‌های مختلف ترکیبات شیمیایی بر دوره خواب و عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران در شرایط هیدروپونیک به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی کشاورزی فدک در سال 1393 اجرا شد. سه ترکیب و چهار غلظت شامل جیبرلیک اسید (GA3) (0، 5، 20 و 40 mg.l-1)، کلروکلین کلراید (CCC) (0، 100، 200 و 300 mg.l-1) و نفتالین استیک اسید (NAA) (0، 100، 200 و 300 mg.l-1) به عنوان عوامل آزمایشی مدنظر قرار گرفتند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل وزن تر گل، طول کلاله، وزن تر کلاله، وزن خشک کلاله و تعداد گل در دو زمان مهر و آذر ماه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر غلظت بر شاخص‌های عملکرد گل زعفران در برداشت اول معنی‌دار (01/0≥p) بود. همچنین اثر نوع ماده و غلظت نیز شاخص‌های عملکرد گل در برداشت دوم را به طور معنی‌داری (05/0≥p) تحت تاثیر قرار داد. افزایش غلظت ترکیبات تنظیم‌کننده رشد کاهش وزن تر گل، تعداد گل، طول کلاله، وزن تر کلاله و وزن خشک کلاله را موجب شد. بیشترین طول کلاله و تعداد گل برای CCC به ترتیب با 34/0 سانتی‌متر و 41/3 گل مشاهده شد. بنابراین، مشخص است که هورمون‌ها و تنظیم‌کننده‌های رشد نقش مهمی در دوره خواب پیاز و شاخص‌های عملکرد پیاز ایفاء می‌نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Amirghasemi, T., 2004. Saffron, Red Gold of Iran. Nashr-e Ayandegan Publication. 112 pp. [in Persian].

Amirshekari, H., Sorooshzadeh, A., Modaress Sanavy, A., and Jalali Javaran, M., 2006. Study the effects of root temperature, corm size and gibberellin on underground organs of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iran. J. Biol. 19(1), 5-18. [in Persian with English Summary].

Anilkumar M., 2005. Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth. L.). M.Sc. Thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. 73 pp.

Arteca, R.N., 2000. Plant Growth Substances Principles and Application. Translated by: Fathi, G., and Esmaielpour, B., Publications University of Mashhad. 72, 161-162.

Arthur, V., Chadwick, P., and Stanley, P.B., 1970. Regulation of root growth by auxin -ethylene interaction. Plant Physiol. 45, 192-200.

Azizbikova, N.S.H., and Milaeva, E.L., 1978. Saffron Cultivation in Azerbaijan. In: Negbi, M. (Ed.). Crocus sativus L. Harwood Academic Publishers. Australia. p. 63-71.

Behdani, M.A., and Fallahi, H.R., 2015. Technical Knowledge Based on Research Approaches. University of Birjand Press, Birjand, Iran. 411 pp. [in Persian].

Behdani, M.A., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., 2008. Agroecological zoning and potential yield of saffron in Khorasan-Iran. J. Biol. Sci. 8(2), 298-305. [in Persian with English Summary].

Birader, G., and Navalagatti, C.M., 2008. Effect of plant growth regulators on physiology and quality in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). University of Agricultural Sciences. MSc. Dissertation. Dharwad.

Chao, W.S., Foley, M.E., Horvath, D.P., and Anderson, J.V., 2007. Signals regulating dormancy in vegetative buds. J. Plant Biol. 1, 49–56.

Chao, W.S., Serpe, M.D., Anderson, J.V., and Gesch, R.W., 2006. Sugars, hormones, and environment affect the dormancy status in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). Weed Sci. 54, 59-68.

Chrungoo, N.K., and Farooq, S., 1984. Influence of GA and NAA on the yield and growth of saffron. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 27, 201-205.

Davis, P.J., 1988. Plant Hormones and their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 432 pp.

Dharmasena, P.A.I.U., Karunananda, D.P., and Eeswara, J.P. 2011. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and Sugar on in vitro cormlet formation, multiplication and ex-vitro sprouting of Gladiolus hybrida variety Princess Lee. Trop Agric. Res. 23(1), 1-10.

Dhua, R.S., Ghosh, S.K., Mitra, S.K., Yadav, L.P., and Bose, T.K., 2005. Effect of bulb size, temperature treatment of bulbs and chemicals on growth and flower production in tuberose. Acta Hort. 205, 121-128.

Farooq, S., and Chrungoo, N.K., 1990. Effect of GA3 and NAA on carbohydrate degradation in corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) during development. International Congress of Plant Physiology, Delhi, India.

Finkelstein, R., Reeves, W., Arizumi, T., and Steber, C., 2008. Molecular aspects of seed dormancy. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 59, 387-415.

Guthrie, J.P., 1938. Inducing "dormancy" in potato tubers with potassium naphthalene acetate and breaking it with ethylene chlorohydrin. Science. 88(2273), 86.

Guthrie, J.P., I939. Inhibition of the growth of buds of potato tubers with the vapor of the methyl ester of naphthalene acetic acid. Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute. 10, 325-328.

Hanks, G.R., 1984. Factors affecting the response of tulips to gibberellin. Sci. Hort. 23(4), 379-390.

Jiang, K., and Feldman, L.J., 2005. Regulation of root apical meristem development. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Bl. 21, 485-509.

Jules, J., Robert, W.S., Frank, W.N., and Varnon, W.R., 1981. Plant science. An introduction to world crops. W. H. Freeman & Co. New York, Pp. 162-192

Kermode, A.R., 2005. Role of abscisic acid in seed dormancy. J. Plant Growth Regul. 24, 319-344.

Koocheki, A., 2013. Research on production of Saffron in Iran: Past trend and future prospects. Saffron Agron. Technol. 1(1), 3-21. [in Persian with English Summary].

Kumar, R., Virendra, S., Kiran, D., Sharma, S., and Ahuja, P.S., 2009. State of art of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) agronomy: A comprehensive review. Food Rev. Int. 25(1), 44-85.

Leite, V.M., Rosolem, C.A., and Rodrigues, J.D., 2003. Gibberellin and Cytokinin effects on soybean growth. Sci. Agric. 60, 537-541.

Lesica, P., and Steele, B.M., 1994. Prolonged dormancy in vascular plants and implications for monitoring studies. Natural Areas Journal. 14, 209–212.

Letham, D.S., 1994. Cytokinins as phytohormonessites of biosynthesis, translocation, and function of translocated cytokinin. In: Mok, D.W.S., Mok, M.C. (Eds.) Cytokinins: Chemistry, Activity, and Function. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 57–80.

Long, R.L., Williams, K., Griffiths, E.M., Flematti, G.R., Merritt, D.J., Stevens, J.C., Turner, S.R., Powles, S.B., and Dixon, K.W., 2010. Prior hydration of Brassica tournefortii seeds reduces the stimulatory effect of karrikinolide on germination and increases seed sensitivity to abscisic acid. Ann. Bot. 105, 1063-1070.

Matthew, G., Blanchard, M., Erik, and Runkle, S., 2008. Benzyladenine promotes flowering in Doritaenopsis and Phalaenopsis orchids. Journal of Plant, Growth and Regulation. 27, 141–150.

Medina, R., Burgos, A., Difranco, V., Mroginski, L., and Cenóz, P., 2012. Effects of chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Rocha) plant growth and tuberous root quality. Sci. Agric. 29, 51-58.

Mehraj, S.S., and Balkhi, H.M., 2013. Importance and impact of cement industry on saffron (Crocus sativus). Int. J. Curr. Res. 3, 602-604.

Moallemi, N., and Chehrazi, M., 2003. Effects of auxines on rooting of stem cutting with leaves and leaves Bougainvillea spectabilis. The 3rd Iranian Congress of Horticultural Science, Karaj-Iran. [in Persian].

Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Boroumand Rezazadeh, Z., and Tabrizi, L., 2007. Effects of corm size and storage period on allocation of assimilates in different parts of saffron plants (Crocus sativus L.). Iran. J. Field Crop Res. 5(1), 155-166. [in Persian with English Summary].

Nelson, J., 2009. Effect of Indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on length and width of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Edisto 47. J. Agric. Res. 9(3), 530-538.

Ogawa, M., Hanada, A., Yamauchi, Y., Kuwahara, A., Kamiya, Y., and Yamaguchi, S., 2003. Gibberellin biosynthesis and response during Arabidopsis seed germination. Plant Cell. 15, 1591-1604.

Okagami, N., and Tanno, N., 1993. Gibberellic acid-induced prolongation of the dormancy in tubers or rhizomesof several species of East Asian Dioscorea. Plant Growth Regul. 12, 119-123.

Passam, H.C., 1982. Dormancy of yams in relation to storage. In: Miege, J., and Lyona, N. (Eds.). Yams. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 285-293.

Permeh, Z., Mohebi, R., Nabizade, A., and Hosseini, M.A., 2010. Iran's saffron: export capacity and target markets. J. Stud. Res. Econ. 13(51), 59-95. [in Persian with English Summary].

Pilet, P.E., and Saugy, M., 1987. Effect on root growth of endogenous and applied IAA and ABA, acritical reexamination. Plant Physiol. 83, 33-38.

Qrunfleh, I.M., 2010. Delaying bud break in ‘Edelweiss’ grapevines to avoid spring frost injury by NAA and vegetable oil applications. PhD Thesis. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 108 p.

Rajabpoor, S., Saboora, A., Vatanpour Azghandi, A., 2011. Changes in exogenous hormone concentration and its effect on somatic embryo maturation and micro-corm. Iran. J. Plant Biol. 3(8), 41-57. [in Persian with English Summary].

Rezvani, N., Sorooshzadeh, A., and Sharifi, M., 2014. Effects of auxin and copper on growth of saffron. Iran. J. Plant Biol. 6(19), 111-124. [in Persian with English Summary].

Sadeghi Bakhtavari, A., Khawar, K.H.M., and Arslan, N., 2011. Ex-vitro shoot regeneration and lateral buds of freshly harvested saffron corms. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6(15), 3583-3587.

Sadeghi, B., 1996. Effect of warehousing and planting dates on flowering corms of saffron. Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Khorasan Institute, Khorasan, Iran. [in Persian].

Sawan, Z.M., and Sakr, R.A., 1998. Effect of 1-naphthalene acetic acid concentrations and the number of applications on the yield components, yield and fiber properties of the Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). J. Agron. 18, 275-283.

Setia, N., Sangeetha, R., Setia, R.C., and Malik, C.P., 1993. Alterations in growth and yield response to foliar application of Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Indian J. Plant Physiol. 1, 47-52.

Sharifi, G., and Ebrahimzadeh, H., 2010. Interaction of IBA and NAA with enzymes in root induction of Crocus sativus (L). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9(2), 217-225.

Sharma, N.K., Arora, S.K., and Dhankhar, B.S., 1988. Effect of plant growth substances on growth, flowering, sex expression and fruit yield in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.]. Haryana Agricultural University. J. Res. 18, 291-297

Shefferson, R.P., 2009. The evolutionary ecology of vegetative dormancy in mature herbaceous perennial plants. J. Ecol. 97, 1000–1009.

Sheibani, M., Nemati, S., Davarinejad, G., Azghandi, A., and Habashi, A., 2007. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in saffron using Thidiazuron (TDZ). Acta Horticulturae. 10(20), 3564-3570.

Van Iersel, M.V., 1998. Auxins affect post-transplant root and shoot growth of Vinca seedlings. HortScience. 33, 1210-1214.

Walinga, I., van Vark, W., Houba, V.J.G., and van der Lee, J.J., 1989. Plant analysis procedure. Wageningen Agricultural University, Netherlands.

Zaferanchi, S., Safari, M., Safari, V., and Mohamadinejad, G., 2011. The effect of plant growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid and benzyl amino purine and performance characteristics of four genotypes of sesame. J. Crop Prod. Environ. Stress. (2), 49-62. [in Persian with English Summary].

Zheng, R., Wu, Y., and Xia, Y., 2012. Chlorocholine chloride and Paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’. J. Zhejiang. Univ.-Sc. B. (Biomed. Biotechnol.). 13, 136-144.