مقایسه غلظت عناصر غذایی پرمصرف در بنه زعفران در مزارع چندساله در خراسان جنوبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند.

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند.

چکیده

زعفران با نام علمی (Crocus sativus L.) یکی از مهم ترین محصولات صادراتی ایران است. لذا تحقیق حاضر با هدف تعیین غلظت عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در بنه گیاه زعفران در تعدادی از اگرواکوسیستم‎های خراسان جنوبی (قائن و نهبندان) در سال ۱۳۹۴ انجام شد. اطلاعات مورد نیاز از دو منطقه قائن و نهبندان از مزارع سه، پنج و هفت ساله تهیه گردید و از هر یک از مزارع فوق سه مزرعه انتخاب و سپس از هر مزرعه، سه کرت و از هر کرت یک نمونه بنه انتخاب شد. غلظت عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در بنه گیاه زعفران بر اساس روش‏های استاندارد اندازه‏گیری گردید. اثرات متقابل منطقه و سن مزرعه بر درصد نیتروژن بنه معنی‏دار نبود ولی غلظت عناصر غذایی فسفر و پتاسیم بنه را تحت تأثیر قرار داد. بیشترین غلظت نیتروژن بنه در مزارع سه ساله شهرستان قائن به دست آمد. همچنین غلظت نیتروژن بنه زعفران در مزارع هفت ساله کاهش معنی‏داری نسبت به مزارع سه ساله داشت. غلظت فسفر و پتاسیم بنه زعفران در مزارع پنج ساله قائن افزایش معنی‏داری نسبت به مزارع سه و هفت ساله دو شهرستان داشت. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد مزارع پنج ساله شهرستان قائن به دلیل داشتن میزان بالای غلظت عناصر غذایی در بنه مانند نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم با مقدار 7.23 کیلوگرم در هکتار ماده خشک دارای بیشترین عملکرد بود. در مجموع انتخاب بنه‏ها با وزن مناسب برای کاشت و استفاده مناسب از عناصر غذایی به ویژه نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و همچنین موازنه صحیح آن در خاک می‏تواند در افزایش عملکرد و ثبات حاصلخیزی خاک مؤثر باشد.

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