تأثیر تراکم کاشت و وزن بنه بر عملکرد زعفران(Crocus sativus L.) در شرایط کاشت بین ردیف درختان سیب در فیروزآباد یاسوج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج

چکیده

رشد و نمو زعفران تا حدودی با فصل خواب درختان خزان‌دار از جمله سیب مطابقت و زمان ثمردهی و رشد رویشی آن با درخت کم‌ترین تداخل را دارد. با توجه به انطباق بالای فصل رشد آن با بارندگی‌ها، می‌توان از آن در شرایط کم‌آبی حداکثر بهره را برد. جهت بررسی اثر تراکم کاشت و وزن بنه بر عملکرد زعفران، آزمایشی طی سال‌های زراعی 95-94 و 96-95 در باغ سیبی در فیروز آباد یاسوج به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اول شامل تراکم در 3 سطح (8/30 ، 40 و 1/57 بنه در مترمربع) و عامل دوم شامل وزن بنه در 4 سطح (وزن بنه کمتر از 6 ، وزن بنه 1/6 تا 8 ، وزن بنه 1/8 تا 10 و وزن بنه بالاتر از 10 گرم) بود. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین و کم‌ترین تعداد گل، عملکرد گل تر و خشک، عملکرد کلاله تر و خشک، عملکرد بنه، تعداد بنه دختری، و عملکرد کلاله نسبت به سطح باغ در هر دو سال به ترتیب در ترکیب تیماری 1/57 بنه در متر مربع و وزن بنه بالای 10 گرم و ترکیب تیماری 8/30 بنه در متر مربع و وزن بنه زیر 6 گرم به دست آمد. در هر دو سال بالاترین و پایین‌ترین درصد سبز شدن به ترتیب در بنه‌های با وزن بالاتر از 10 گرم و پایین‌تر از 6 گرم مشاهده شد. از آنجایی‌که عملکرد اصلی زعفران، میزان کلاله خشک و بنه هست، با توجه به نتایج به نظر می‌رسد که با کاشت بنه‌های با وزن بالای 10 گرم و تراکم 1/57 بنه در متر مربع، با کوتاه نمودن فاصله زمانی کاشت تا تولید اقتصادی زعفران، در سال‌های اول که باغ عملکرد اقتصادی ندارد و هنوز سایه انداز درخت کامل نشده است، می‌توان عملکرد مناسبی از زعفران به‌دست آورد.

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